Thursday, February 28, 2013

Reaping The Benefits Of Dark Self Tanner

By Haywood Hunter

Dark self tanner is the ideal choice for people seeking to get a realistic tan look without having to lay out in the sun all day. This liquid dark self tanner has been in production for close to three decades and is available all over the world. Many people continue to learn the benefits of opting for these products rather than risk getting burned on a sun bed.

One of the most popular attributes of dark self tanner products is the speed of action. While dark self tanner products do require some prep time so that a person can wash up and exfoliate, the application process is simple and takes effect fast. When compared with the many hours that would be needed sunbathing in order to achieve the same result, it is miniscule. It is also faster when compared to time taken lying on a sun bed.

Privacy is a very important concern for many people. In order to achieve an all over tan, many wear very revealing swimming costumes and are forced to spend lots of time lying outside in the sun. They often find themselves in open view of others in places like public beaches and shared rooftop gardens in high-rise areas. Using dark self tanner helps people who are embarrassed by such exercises preserve their modesty. They can acquire the same, if not a better, tan from within the confines of their homes.

The health benefit of using dark self tanner products is the most vital aspect. When people sunbathe, they get to enjoy the heat of the sun's rays at a very steep cost. The ultra violet rays that shine down on human skin have been responsible for many people developing skin cancer. People, who have been careless enough, or simply ignorant, have spent many hours under the hot sun without lathering up with some sunscreen. This has increased their risk of developing this condition.

With dark self tanner, a person is not in any danger of suffering skin cancer. In fact it has been recommended by many experts as the best alternative to sunbathing. Most of the biggest sellers of the product have for many years had FDA approval, helping to reassure the public that the ingredients used are safe.

The application of dark self tanner is done directly on to the skin. This means the effect takes place on the outer epidermis on a layer made up of dead skin cells. This ensures that the effect of the color change is only temporary. The user can opt to allow the product to simply wear off with time, or reapply the lotion to maintain appearances. Most lotions retain their effect for at least a week before they start fading and the skin cells fall off or get washed away.

The manufacture of dark self tanner products began in 1983 and has continued to grow exponentially ever since. New variations form different companies keep appearing that promise a better tan and a more natural look. Thankfully, many of the products are easily affordable and can be continuously used for a year round tan.

The newest fad in this industry has to be the introduction of skin tanning pills. These pills are a risky option as they work on creating a tan by having a person ingest the coloring agent. Experts have warned that too many pills being ingested can result in liver damage and adverse skin reactions. Dark self tanner is the safest and most cost effective means of getting tan.

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Precisely what to contemplate when purchasing sports headphones

By Adam Small

Jogging is a sport activity used by lots of people around the globe. It features numerous benefits for our wellness since it uses nearly each muscle of our physique. However, when employed for extended amounts of time, it could grow to be monotonous for amateur individuals, and this is where music is needed.

Music can stimulate the body and give you a little boost in your running whenever you seem like quitting. However, exactly how should we execute jogging and tune in to music concurrently without affecting the body movements? For this query, the headphones for running are virtually the very best answer.

Exactly why might Bluetooth headphones be great for jogging?

Bluetooth headphones for running are virtually the most effective type of headphones for this exercise, simply because they don't consist of any kind of wires that might tease you in your running. However, not every one of the Bluetooth headphones include the same attributes, so you have to know what to consider when buying this kind of goods. For starters, make certain that the headphones do not ponder much and that they can fit your years completely. You do not won't a pair of headphones for running that will fell out of your years whenever you carry out a rapid change of direction, hence the grip is significant.

The materials and styles are two of the biggest attributes of the earbuds for running because the stormy or foggy days can impact the efficiency of the headphones. Buy only sweat and water proof merchandise in order to avoid any sort of trouble with the functionality of the headphones.

Various studies have demonstrated that countless athletes use the headphones for running in order to boost their overall performance in the exercise sessions. Numerous studies have established that music doesn't just affect our emotive side, however it may also enhance our energy and excitement.

What rewards do Bluetooth headphones contain?

The particular Bluetooth headphones are lighter compared to the typical headphones. Also, they are easier to utilize since they don't necessitate anything more than a Bluetooth connection plus they don't mock you during your jogging periods. These are practically the best headphones for running simply because they likewise incorporate a stronger and much more supportable grip that wont encourage the earbuds to fell out from your years. However, within a cost comparability, you need to understand that the Bluetooth headphones can cost you a lot more than the normal headphones.

Can there be anything to bear in mind before choosing a couple of Bluetooth headphones for running; are there certain that are more popular than others?

When you choose to get a pair of headphones for running, you must realise that there is a couple of things that you ought to examine. First of all, quality of sound and volume characteristics are important, thus analyze them very carefully. Moreover, some headphones may include some types or clips or hooks which might be extremely helpful whenever you try to position them on your years. Normally, these headphones for running are more expensive, but they furthermore include a higher quality.

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How To Have A Successful Career In Accountancy

By Anthony Tang

People who have no involvement in any accounting endeavour would think that accounting is a profession that is filled with painfully difficult tasks. With the perception of associating math with accounting, it's simply impossible for most people to face accountancy as if it was that easy. Despite some truth to this statement, it really isn't what accounting is all about.

Accounting, after all, only requires basic knowledge in math and economics. That means in many areas of accounting, an aspiring CPA would have to play with numbers. Only specialized subjects would therefore require a deeper knowledge of numbers and equations.

Do you want to join a renowned accountancy company? Do you wish to be a CPA? Do you want to be a hotshot accountant? If your wish is to be a household name in the accounting industry, then it is imperative for you to nurture your love for the numbers as early as now. But don't think that accountancy is almost about numbers. If you treat taxation as a particular specialty, for instance, you won't really need math that much, but a solid knowledge of all tax rules.

Tax regulations change from one country to another. The structure of rules and implementation depend on the governing body. Knowledge of all these regulations can create in you that stellar image and give you the edge that you need.

To fully enjoy a career in accountancy in Singapore, make sure you work for a stellar company that belongs to the big league. Aim big and never settle for small accountancy and audit firms in Singapore. Keep your targets high. Find a reputable, renowned audit firm in Singapore that is ready to utilise and enhance your potentials. Work with a company that holds a reputation in the accountancy industry. Working with the best will ultimately boost your accounting competencies over time. Audit firms in Singapore are always open for those who are industrious, and the company secretary Singapore.

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Dani Johnson: Truly an Inspiration

By Shane McConnell

It is always inspiring when we see a successful person who did not necessarily come from the most advantageous background. Dani Johnson is a true-life example of this type of person. Though one might expect, by meeting her in her earlier years, that she would spend much of her life struggling to get by, she has actually done a complete 180, making the best of the hand she was dealt to become an extremely successful figure.

The story of her younger years is a sad one. She came from a broken home in which she was consistently abused for most of her adolescence. In addition, she was exposed to drug usage at a very young age. As one might expect from the child of a broken home, she became pregnant far too young and by the time she was 21 years old, she was living out of her car. Though things seemed bleak, this was not a lifestyle to which she was willing to succumb.

Regardless of the foundation of her adolescence, she was filled with determination to become something better. At the age of 21, she was homeless, living out of her car and dabbling in various businesses to make money. She began selling pills for weight-loss and was surprisingly successful in this business. Her success in this field led her to create her own company that sold skin care and nutritional products.

Within two years of being homeless, Dani Johnson became a millionaire. This might seem difficult to believe, but she is living proof that with a bit of determination, anyone can go from rags to riches. The skills and steps she took in order to create this path for herself included creating strong relationships, avoiding debt, and managing her time wisely. She also made it a point to maintain familial relationships and give back to others in need.

As a result of all her hard work and persistence, she now owns five separate businesses -- quite the successful entrepreneur. Additionally, she is a sought-after speaker who gives advice on the radio, in magazines, and on television about her rise to wealth. She gives back by helping others pave their own paths to success while also assisting with charities that help children who also must live in unfortunate circumstances.

It is undeniable that Dani Johnson is one-in-a-million in terms of her story. She built herself up from nearly nothing in order to become a millionaire with numerous successful businesses. Therefore, she is the perfect model from whom to seek advice for anyone who is in desperate need of financial change. It is clear to see that if she can do it, anyone can -- it is all a matter of having determination.

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Wish to Deal with Your Personal Advancement However Do not Know Where To Begin? Get Help Below!

By Juan Yohansen

Nobody truly wants to think that they need to help themselves improve, specifically, because it involves planning and working hard. Still, it's essential to know exactly what you require to do to make things much better.


Spend 10 mins each day on self-reflection. This could include diary writing, reviewing spiritual product, reflection or whatever helps you examine your day and mirror on exactly how your actions during the day mirror who you are and who you are becoming. Daily representation helps you stay on your course.

Remember that individual advancement is beyond your physical self. Having more pride in exactly how you hold yourself is very vital, but your development eventually depends upon a healthy relationship with yourself and the globe around you. Consider finding out meditation techniques as you find out brand-new means to procedure and react to the globe around you. Try brainwave entrainment.


Summon the determination to take some time off and just enjoy life more commonly. Pausing every once in a while is great. Life is a gift to be enjoyed - it's not everything about work and product things. If you lead a busy life, it is vital to know when to decrease. A little time for rest and relaxation gives your mind and body some time to recharge.

Enhance your life - find out to play an instrument! Playing a musical instrument could reduce your stress level, help in relaxation and even entertain you and others around you! Understanding brand-new things keeps you encouraged, exercises your brain and researches show discovering could even help fend off illness.


One of the finest ways to leave work at work actually includes leaving work at your front door. Enable yourself no more than 15 minutes to vent about whatever irritations or troubles you faced during the day, then leave it at that. This will enable you to appreciate your time invested at house with your adored ones more intensely and devoid of stress.

Numerous problems will provide themselves in your every day life. You must take the time to sift through your everyday life and categorize issues and worries as significant or unimportant.

See, it wasn't almost as bad as you thought it would be. Considering exactly how you can help yourself live a better life. Life can get stuck in ruts which can make living it, that much harder. Do yourself a favor and follow those above ideas to live a happier life, your means.

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Quickest Way To Lose Weight Now - Health

Quickest Way To Lose Weight - Top 5 TipsFind out the 5 critical tips which will show you the quickest way to lose weight. Quickest Way To Lose Weight Tip #1: Weight Loss GoalsIf you don't know where you're going, there's a good chance you're not going to get there. The biggest mistake beginners make in regards to weight loss is that they go in blind. They have no objective... nothing to achieve. So this means that they have no way of gauging if they are succeeding. So, make sure you clearly outline your fitness goals by year, month and week. Break them into Action Goals (eg: 40 reps on Tuesday) and Result Goals (eg: I will weigh 75 kg by June 1st). When you do this, you will always know where you stand. Quickest Way To Lose Weight Tip #2: Get HelpThe fastest route to success is to walk the path of those who have come before you. In short, ask the experts who have gone through the pains you are. Let's face it weight loss is a challenge in the best of times, but if you're go ing to go at it alone, the probability of success is low. Start by buying books or programs which help educate you on how you can start losing weight and building your fitness. If you feel you need more help, get a personal trainer. The right trainer can expedite your weight loss exponentially. There are some great programs out there and you can check out our site for more details. Quickest Way To Lose Weight Tip #3: Stay ConsistentNo matter what weight loss programs you're going to use you will DEFINITELY need consistency. The key here is to build a ritual which you can follow every week. Now remember, use common sense, depending on where you are on your journey, adjust your program accordingly. So, if you can only workout 3 times a week. Then make sure you do 3 times a week no matter what! The people who fail at losing weight DO NOT have the rituals. Get your rituals in order and find that consistency. Quickest Way To Lose Weight Tip #4: Forget Fad DietsFad Dieting will no t help you lose weight in the long term. If anything, they make things worse. Weight loss involves 2 things, exercise and a healthy diet (not dieting). In order to achieve your weight loss goals, you need to change the way you look at food. It's not about dieting, it's a lifestyle change. It's NOT about eating less unhealthy food, it's about eating healthier food. It's about a complete change on your perception about eating. Quickest Way To Lose Weight Tip #5: Enjoy It!If you can't find the joy in exercising, it's only a matter of time till you quit. Losing weight and getting fit does not have to be a chore. With a proper mindset you can change the way you approach exercise. One of the best suggestions someone gave me was to pick a sport I loved and play it regularly. If you start with something you love doing, eventually the enjoyment will spread.

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Wednesday, February 27, 2013

You Can Improve Your Acne With This Information

By Steve Jones

If you are not well educated on the subject, acne can be a long and tough battle to fight against. The information mentioned in this article is sure to be helpful with your continuous battle against acne.

A good home acne treatment you can try is honey. If you take a bit of honey and some cinnamon and mix it together and apply it to the face, let it sit for roughly 5-10 minutes, and it will cause the skin to appear smoother and also rid your face of any excess oil and waste substances.

Try using a blemish stick if you have facial blemishes. As its name suggests, a spot concealer is applied only to the areas you want to conceal. Blemish sticks are usually not as thick as concealers and should not clog your pores badly.

Stop stressing out over everything. Stress can't cause acne, but it can increase the severity of the problem in people who already suffer from the condition.

There's no absolutely surefire way to avoid acne, but there are ways to reduce your chances of breaking out. If you use hair spray or hair gel, be sure to keep these products away from the skin of the face as much as possible. Many hair products contain ingredients that can clog pores and trigger breakouts.

An essential component of acne prevention is consuming healthy amounts of water. As a general rule, try to drink a glass of water at least a minimum of eight times a day. Becoming dehydrated is problematic for your skin and other parts of your body. Acne is easily exaggerated by a lack of hydration, because dead skin cells are not removed properly when water is lacking. These dead skin cells can also exacerbate acne.

For an easy home remedy for treating acne, try a mask made from one part lime juice and one part ground nut oil. If you mix it and spread it over acne infested skin, it will heal faster.

To treat swelling from acne, use an ice cube wrapped in a towel and put it on the trouble spot for approximately 20 minutes. Using ice will reduce the swelling as well as redness. In addition, if the pimple is sore or tender, ice can help to reduce the pain. Ice is a workable alternative to chemical-based topical anti-inflammatory creams because no potential irritants are being added to your skin.

Avoid alcohol consumption or keep it to a minimum. It is fine to imbibe on special occasions or have a glass of wine or beer with dinner. However, when you are drinking heavily on a regular basis, your skin may develop major acne issues.

Resist all temptations to pop your pimples or scratch acne-affected areas. Instead, use an acne cream or spot treatment. Picking at your pimples makes it more likely that infection and scarring will occur. It can also cause skin discolorations which can last a long time.

You will be better able to control acne if you lower your stress levels. Stress brings about hormones that wreak havoc on the skin, and it is also detrimental to your overall health. Stress reduction techniques offer numerous health benefits for your body and mind. Therefore, it is in your best interest to seek activities that promote this effect, such as working out, meditating or even listing to music. Stress can cause acne flare ups, so make sure to keep your stress levels under control.

To rid your skin of acne, spend more time basking in the sun's rays. Bear in mind that your skin will get drier the more it's bared to the sun. Initially, the oil may rise to the top of your skin, which can temporarily make acne worse. Within a week or two, though, your skin will adjust to its new conditions and break out less.

You may want to purchase hypo-allergenic or featherless pillows if you suffer from facial acne. Feathers can irritate skin and cause acne problems. Also, make sure not to have your hands placed on your chin as you sleep, this can cause pimples to form.

Caffeinated drinks like soda, coffee, and tea are awful for your skin, and are often major contributors to acne problems. You are likely to see fewer breakouts if you eliminate some or all of the caffeine intake from your diet.

Now that you have some great tips and information about how to defeat your acne, you should see a decrease in the number of blemishes that you suffer from. Take this guidance to heart, and avoid breakouts forever. They can help you and other sufferers you know.

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Sun Love Self Tanner Solutions

By Haywood Hunter

Many self tanner sprays make you look orange and are difficult to apply evenly, and many wont stick to the skin properly. Sun Love self tanner give's you a natural looking even tan that looks bronze and realistic.

Self tanners have been around since 1960s, as it was revealed by health authorities that exposure to the sun can result in health problems such as skin cancer. Because of this self tanner sprays such as Sun Love Self Tanner have become increasing popular.

The more effective self tanner sprays like the Sun Love Self Tanner line of products, contain DHA dihydroxyacetone). DHA is harmless and does not alter the pigments in the skin. It works by producing a chemical reaction with the dead skin cells that lie on the skin's surface. This reaction makes the skin darker. DHA is FDA approved, so long as the ingredient falls below 14%. All of the Sun Love Self Tanner products contain below 14% DHA.

Sun Love self tanner products contain the minimum amount of DHA, but turn the skin a natural bronze color; many of the other self tanner products tend to produce slightly orange and unrealistic colors. Sun Love achieves this by added a touch of green, which neutralizes orange. It is not detectable as green on the skin and creates a far more natural color.

Using a self tanner is now more popular than ever, thanks to celebrity endorsements. Kate Middleton wore a fake tan during her recent wedding. They provide a great way to improve your look and increase your self confidence. Because of the risks associated with using a sun bed or sun bathing in bright sunshine, they are a much safer option. They are also a much better tanning solution for those show have light skin, or freckles, and for those who tend to burn very easily in the sun.

Sun Love Self Tanner is the best self tanning product available. It is extremely natural in color and lasts for a long period of time. Sun Love Self Tannerproducts have a very fine spray so it is easy to get an even tan in those difficult places, such as the neck, face, back and behind the legs,

For the best tanning results it is wise to exfoliate the skin before applying the product; this removes any flaky dead skin cells. This because DHA reacted to the top layer of dead skin cells, so flaking skin will come off making the tan look patchy. Also apply a thin layer of moisturizer all over the body before applying the tanner. This is the secret to obtaining a very natural looking tan.

After applying Sun Love self tanner it is recommended to use a daily moisturizer that contains DHA. This help the fake tan develop and also easier to maintain. The tan usually appears the following day, although with some people in may take two days to fully develop. For a natural color tan that is easy to apply look no further that the Sun Love self tanner solution. It is available in different size bottles at an affordable price. Do a search on the internet for Sun Love Self Tanner products to find the best deals.

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Getting to Know the Good Method of Choosing Drug Treatment Centers to Lastly End Drug Abuse

By Kimberly Mason

The Various Effects of Drugs

Drugs have a few other effects and can both be helpful or hazardous depending on how it is utilized. Their results vary on the person's body because we all react to drugs in different ways. Many people are not well conscious of the good usage of drugs and the way it may be truly hazardous once it is misused.

One of the popular negative effects of drugs is the euphoria it offers to folks making them truly addictive. Especially prescription drugs, folks will start to depend on these results and will think that they require the drug to function accordingly. Lots of individuals have no real idea that prescription medications may be equally dangerous once abused. They believe that because they are recommended, they cannot cause any kind of danger to our well-being.

It's important that folks are properly educated about the devastating effects of drugs and the various drug treatment programs accessible for people who are suffering from an addiction to them.

The Cautions to Observe When Using Drugs

Before you begins using drugs, you should observe a number of cautions initially so you won't have any specific serious problems.

You need to talk to your physician first concerning your medical and health history including your additional diseases and selected drug allergic reactions. Your doctor must have full knowledge about this to avoid any kind of problems.

If a drug will make you dizzy, you need to inform your doctor if you need to be alert for most of the day such as if you drive your own vehicle, you manage weighty machine, or you are about to travel by yourself.

Inform your medical professional also if you are taking extra drugs as the drug prescribed to you might have a separate reaction with the other drug.

Suffering From Drug Addiction

You are likely to build drug dependence even if you are doing the particular orders of your physicians specifically when the use of the drug is extended. It's essential that you speak about your doctor with this particularly if you have experienced being dependent with other drugs.

The time you feel that you have a dependency to the drug, inform your medical professional straight away to stay away from making the issue more severe and build additional issues. There are great drug treatment centers that you could go to in case the situation is already serious.

Choosing the Right Therapy Center

You don't just choose any treatment center. Drug abuse is a dangerous issue and ought to be given the utmost care. Not all drug treatment facilities are able to give this therefore make sure that you are able to select one. Ask from your doctor for excellent tips. If you wish to research for yourself, you may check the local listings of your area or call drug hotlines and ask for assistance.

Always remember that you are not by yourself. You can always approach your family and friends and ask for help.

Don't allow drug addiction to control your life. Learn a lot more regarding the different drug recovery centers to finally get rid of drug abuse.

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Find Out How Denton Dentist Offers Cosmetic Dental Procedures

By Carlene Eriksson

If you want to have a procedure done to fix broken enamel or have missing teeth replaced, you will need to look for a Denton dentist who is experienced in cosmetic dentistry. This type of professional is trained to do more than what ordinary dental practitioners do. The main focus will be in beautifying rather than just filling cavities.

You will discover that there are actually many kinds of cosmetic procedures you can take advantage of. These include applying veneers, braces, bridges, crowns, and implanting teeth. You can also have your enamel bonded or reshaped. Bleaching is also another procedure you may get at a cosmetic dental clinic.

Although there are several procedures you can take advantage of, there are 3 common ones that most patients look for. These popular services consist of bleaching, veneer installation, and orthodontic procedures. These are aesthetic in nature and may not be paid for by your dental insurance plan.

Whitening techniques can give you perfect color and a more appealing smile. This is best done if the undamaged enamel is neither uneven nor broken. You can have braces placed in to fix over bites or uneven teeth. The best smile can be produced if you have straight and white incisors that good cosmetic dental practitioners can give you.

If you have chipped enamel or gaps between teeth, you should consider having veneers placed. These consist of thin materials that are attached to the front of each tooth. This could be a better selection over plain whitening if you have to cover up cracked, broken or damaged incisors.

If you are confused about the right procedure you need, you can consult with a cosmetic Denton dentist for advice. You can find a dental clinic near you on the internet. You may also get the rates and packages for cosmetic procedures on a good website.

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Brain Cancer Patients & Importance of Therapy

By Rob Sutter

On a common basis, you would go to a masseuse so that the strain and tweaks in your body can be worked out. The stressors of life can get to you and being able to go somewhere and allow someone to ease that tension out of your system is perhaps one of the most calming experiences you can imagine. Brain cancer patients undergo this kind of massage therapy constantly in order to alleviate tight muscles. Surprising to me, however, there seems to be more to this therapy.

As told about on the Fox News website, there are other benefits of massage therapy in which brain cancer patients are helped by. It seems like there is a prevalence of neurological problems, meaning that people are impacted by this condition when going about mundane actions. Those who may have taken up treatment methods like chemo may report on a level of depression that follows. This sort of information is important, though, and organizations such as Voices Against Brain Cancer should take notice of it.

The article would speak about a study done and 25 patients with these growths would partake in a therapy session. For two times each week for a stretch of four weeks, these patients would undergo massage trials. It seemed like this would be very useful for people, as the symptoms were either decreased or they completely disappeared in time. Patients became more comfortable at the end of these sessions but I am sure that just about anyone could imagine that this would be the result.

Psychiatric distress can occur in cancer patients perhaps more so than just about anyone else in the given population. This is a problem, as you would very well imagine, but that's why massage therapy has been so useful in the past. It's allowed people to alleviate this kind of stress and relax to a degree which they probably wouldn't have been able to do in the past. Hopefully more organizations on the matter of cancer understand just how important these therapy sessions can be.

It seems like those who are afflicted with brain cancer take on more amounts of stress than any other group in the world. Stress occurs more often in these groups than any other and that's why masseuses are hired on. They are able to help people work out the stress that they feel in their bodies and it's possible that not only do they come out more relaxed but almost like different people. These patients need to be able to use this therapy so that their lives are made more comfortable.

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Best Way and Quickest Way to Lose Weight Are Two Very Different Things - Health - Weight Loss

If disputes lead to wars then the third world war might come about due to the disagreement over the quickest way to lose weight. There are so many differing opinions on this subject and every weight loss guru is convinced that his/her method is the quickest way to lose weight. People run after these fads and most of them do succeed in losing weight though not as fast as they wanted to.You must always remember that the best way to lose weight and the quickest way to lose weight are two completely different things. Some people don't understand the difference between the two and try to do various things that often have an adverse impact on their health conditions.Whichever method this elusive method might be, it should definitely involve drinking a lot of water; preferably ice water. 8-10 big glasses of water each day could help you to lose a lot of weight. This should surely be a part of the quickest way to lose weight as it's one of the easiest methods to lose weight. You w ould not feel hungry due to all the water in your stomach and thus you would lose weight as you reduce the amount of fat that you consume.Regular exercises would also be another crucial part of the quickest way to lose weight. However the diet is equally, if not even more, important and you do need to have about 5 to 6 small meals each day. These meals should contain more vegetables and fiber instead of unhealthy fats. You should take special care to cut down on food with lots of sugar and oil.It is important that you try to improve your metabolism rate through both your food intake and exercises. Whatever the quickest way to lose weight might be that elusive magic formula should concentrate on improving your metabolism. Eating more meals and doing weights is all about improving metabolism.You should generally put more focus and effort into cultivating healthier habits. Cutting down on unhealthy foods and working out more is only a part of it. This could even be considered a s the best way to lose weight though it might not fit your description of the quickest way to lose weight.Don't try to run after some mythical weight loss technique that does not exist. You could seriously damage your healthy through trying to lose weight rapidly. Some products that could help you in achieving a short term weight loss could have certain side effects.

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Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Taking Advantage Of Sun Laboratories Self Tanner Reviews

By Haywood Hunter

All females in the world want to look stunning since they are generally aware of their aspects, in particular their faces so as to get it brown. If you have a look on the net, the Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews are always going up. According to Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews, this is mainly because more and more women have found out that they can now give their skins a better color.

All Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews reveal with clarity how advantageous the application of these types of creams can be. And there certainly are benefits as the amount of women posting Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews is multiplying. It's mandatory that you check the type of skin you have before buying any self-tanning lotions. This is an important step if you want to ensure that you give your skin exactly what it needs.

If you have any concerns regarding the application of self-tanning creams, you should browse the net and find Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews to help you. There are so many rewards related to the application of self tanner creams that more and more ladies want to post their Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews telling others about their experiences. Give it a try and see how many reviews you'll spot.

There are so many benefits that can result from the use of these self tanner creams such that the so many women who have applied them on their skins found their skin complexion to be a little bit darker which makes them look natural and beautiful. It also creates a fine layer on top of the skin that offers protection against sun rays that may lead to the occurrence of skin cancer. As the women on the Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews put it very much affordable to the budget conscious people and come with great efficiency.

Some of these posted Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews will have one or two line that will aid you in knowing the kind of online stores that sell them and if they are of good quality depending on what the users say about it. Whatever you will be required to pay as the price of the sun lab self tanner cream will definitely be determined by the quantity and the type of the cream. The more quantity you buy the more you are likely to pay s the price.

Using a spray self tanner is much easier than using a cream as one of the ladies stated on the Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews. You should tan your face then body and lastly the hands. This is done after your skin is well moisturized and cleansed for enhancing efficiency during application.

Some of the reviews mentioned not using a self-tanning lotion after waxing. Those women who did explained that their skin was so red that they immediately got a rash. Those women also left negative comments about the product but that's because they failed to follow some simple instructions. Don't be confused when reading the Sun Laboratories self tanner reviews as they might sometimes be negative because of the users' wrong doings.

If you have never used a self-tanning cream before, you will surely find it imperative to know what other women who have used the product have to say about it. Reading many reviews, be it positive or negative, will be of great use for you. And it doesn't matter how many bad reviews you read, you always need to remember that every product has good and bad points.

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Critical Details Regarding Colour Vision Deficiency

By Joan Moody

In simple terms, colour vision deficiency is a medical condition where a person is unable to distinguish selected shades of colour. In far more extreme cases, it can be referred to as colour blindness. It's nevertheless challenging to uncover individuals being affected by total colour blindness. This implies that an individual suffering from colour vision deficiency may actually see colour but finds it difficult to differentiate between particular shades or possibly reds and greens or even blues and yellows.

People who are totally colour blind are afflicted by a condition known as achromatopsia and can only see things in black, white or even in shades of grey. The severity of colour vision deficiency may differ depending on precisely what caused it. Normally, if the condition has an effect on both eyeballs, chances are that the situation will be hereditary. If it affects only one eye, then it could be that the reason for the deficiency can be illness or injury.

When a person will become in part colour blind it could end up being mainly because the photoreceptors in the retina, known as rods and cones, have recently been damaged. The cones possess pigments which are responsive to certain wavelength of light, that allows the brain to blend the information delivered to it coming from both rods and cones, through the optic nerve, to make standard colour vision. Whenever either of the receptor cells is damaged, then the brain will not end up being in a position to differentiate the colours which the rods and cones may be receiving.

Other reason for colour vision deficiency might be a few particular diseases which harm the optic nerve or retina such as diabetes, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease or perhaps macular degeneration among several additional diseases. Particular kinds of medication that treat heart disease, nervous disorder or perhaps psychological problems may cause colour vision disorder. In addition, as people grow older, their ability to see and distinguish in between distinct shades of colour progressively lessens.

To be able to figure out that an individual is actually suffering from colour vision deficiency, it might end up being essential to have the patient undergo a thorough eye examination that should range from the utilization of pseudo-isochromatic testing plates. This particular type of test is successful within identifying whether a person is suffering from a deficiency and also which deficiency it might be. The test involves asking an individual to identify a particular pattern, either a letter or even a number, among coloured dots. A person's inability to figure out the pattern indicates that he's struggling with colour vision deficiency.

As for therapy for colour vision deficiency, there is no particular cure that has been employed yet; specifically for a disorder that is inherited. However, if the deficiency had been brought on by injury, illness or even medication, then it is possible to improve it. Most doctors suggest using specifically tinted eyeglasses to improve the person's capacity to identify various shades of colours. For people that are aware of their own deficiency, the majority of them make an effort to compensate their deficiency along with common cues like the fact that trees and shrubs tend to be green

How To Relieve Yourself Form Symptoms Of Hormonal Imbalance

By Jake Alexandre

Hormones are a really an important part of your life whether you like it or not, so if you are undergoing hormonal imbalance then chances are that you need to seek help from the doctor. However before embarking on the hormonal journey of hormone replacement therapy, stop and research well into the topic.

Hormone replacement therapy is the process of changing the lacking hormones in your body with man-made ones. In order for this process to happen, there has to be a means to insert those hormones in your body. A lot of individuals favor using injections, yet the trouble with this is that there is no proper level of bodily hormones in your body, and you have to continually inject hormones in your physique for many weeks. Research has actually shown that this procedure can easily not go on for greater than a couple of weeks, and so many individuals like using creams or gels.

These have to be put on the abdominal areas a few times a week, and hence are easier to utilize compared to shots. Nonetheless, with these there have actually been complaints that they trigger irritation and dryness. Due to this factor, many individuals favor the implantation of pellets under the skin. These pellets are just placed under the skin then you do not need to bother about them for the following 6 months, when you have to insert another pellet. This method is workable and easy. The only setback is that each time you place a brand-new pellet, you will receive a brand-new mark on your body.

Prior to undergoing hormone replacement therapy, make sure to sit down and consult a doctor. Take the hormonal test, and verify the information that it is indeed a hormonal imbalance that is the cause behind the symptoms you are suffering from. Once you receive this confirmation, try and get the know-how on hormonal imbalance, and what you have to do to relieve yourself from its symptoms. Check with the medical doctor if you have to, before you decide on the best approach to take care of your low hormone count. Search the internet and read as much as you can about hormone replacement therapy and its pros and cons, and if it is the best approach for you.

Hormone replacement therapy is the procedure of switching out the lacking bodily hormones in your body with artificial ones. A lot of people favor using injections, yet the trouble with this is that there is no suitable degree of hormones in your physique, and you have to constantly inject bodily hormones in your physique for numerous weeks. Prior to undergoing hormone replacement therapy, make certain to sit down and get in touch with a physician.

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Fashion Pointers To Give You Great Style

By Matthew Johnson

Looking great could cause others to view you more positively, too. Read this article to increase your understanding of fashion, and how to make it work for you.

Use the entire beauty product up before throwing them out. For tubed items, get the squeezers that some use for toothpaste. You can turn bottles around and upside down in order to get the most out of them. It's also sometimes helpful to remove the cap completely. When you're frugal, you'll want to get the most out of everything you buy.

Take your fashion level up by trading or selling clothing items that you are tired of wearing. You can even sell old items online these days, so consider that as a place to get rid of your old clothes. These stores will pay you for the items or they may let you swap them for other clothing that you prefer.

To look stunning, play up your best features. If you have a certain feature that is more appealing than the rest of your body then bring it out, you have to show what you are working with. This can also help to divert the attention from the parts of your body that you are not fond of. Sport a scoop- or boat-neck shirt to highlight your collarbone, for instance, or slip into a skinny pencil skirt to draw attention to your well-toned calves.

Keep your makeup kit simple. Pick products in some seasonally appropriate colors that you like. Think about both night and day uses. Unused makeup can undergo unpleasant chemical changes once opened if left for extended periods of time. In addition, germ growth can occur if the product sits a while.

Pumping the brush repeatedly inside and outside of your mascara container is a bad idea. This just causes air to build up in the tube. This practice promotes the growth of bacteria. If you hope to have your brush coated well, move it around inside the container, but not in and out.

Belts make great fashion accessories and can come in handy too. You'll need preventative measure for your clothes if they become loose due to weight loss. This tip can be utilized by both men and women of all ages.

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Advice And Tips On Best Self Tanner For Knowing

By Haywood Hunter

The level that beauty is today placed is quite high. This is since society is bombarded by lots of info on the importance of being beautiful and so on. It is why the search for a best self tanner is quite high.

First of all before making a choice, someone needs to be certain that they know what they want. This can be in conditions of how long they need their tan to stay, or simply how much they are willing to spend. If they know this, then getting a tanning option will not be easy and can even be fun.

One of the first choices that most people often go for is simply going for the airbrush choice. This normally entails a person getting sprayed by an airbrush all over the body. It ensures that persons are able to get a temporary body tan. This is because it washes easily with water.

Using tanning creams is also another choice that might be used. This is because when used they can make sure that a person has even tone. They are easy to use and can be carried around to any place that somebody goes to .Investing in the best self tanner is well worth the effort.

All these options can be gotten in a number of ways. This is because one may look for these choices over the web, or they can simply talk to other people. Additionally, a person can decide to look at various reviews on the latest trends in beauty. This can in fact be one of the best ways to get a choice.

So, these are some of the methods used to choose a best self tanner service. When all these have been well observed, someone cannot be disappointed. The main reason being, that a person can be certain that they will be able to get the best service. Nevertheless, the cost of each has to be checked. This is so that their affordability can be determined.

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The quickest way to lose weight - Health - Weight Loss

Many overweight persons have trouble shedding those extra pounds because of fixations on several myths on the quickest way to lose weight. Prevalent among these is the myth that the effective weight loss programs are those that are complicated, replete with special graphs and charts on what to eat and when to eat. The fact is the quickest way to lose weight need not be a complicated process.

The truth is the quickest way to lose weight is to have a simple plan.

Another pervasive myth on the quickest way to lose weight is that the dieter must be totally in control what he/she eats. However, this belief is one great fallacy. The quickest way to lose weight is to take fewer calories than your body will burn off, in effect creating a caloric deficit.

There is also this belief that intermittent fasting is just one diet fad on the quickest way to lose weight and that it is fit only for young dieters. However, many research studies show that many people of all ages can benefit from intermittent fasting and adopt it as the quickest way to lose weight.

Many dieters are also led to believe that the quickest way to lose fat is to treat protein macronutrients as better for weight loss because of their effect as fat burning hormones. Any responsible nutritionist, however, can tell that fat is not at all bad and that carbohydrates are fine provide that these are taken in amounts that will not jeopardize the quickest way to lose weight.

There's one program on the quickest way to lose weight available on the internet that shatters all these myths. This program is called Eat Stop Eat and is contained an e-book written by Brad Pilon who have spent all his professional life studying nutrition and weight loss. What he has found is a revolutionary method on the quickest way to lose weight.

Pilon's program is a disarmingly simple way on the quickest way to lose weight. It is a plain combination of weight training and flexible periods of intermittent fasting. He assures that the Eat Stop Eat scheme will not slow down metabolism or will make the dieter lose muscle with the fasting involved in his plan on the quickest way to lose weight. Pilon explains that the current diets prescribed on the quickest way to lose weight are too restrictive and will work only for the first month or two. But with Stop Eat Stop, he says, one can go adopt any style of eating and at the same time achieve the quickest way to lose weight.

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Monday, February 25, 2013

Battling Opiates Abuse to Have an Improved and Clean Lifestyle

By Lenny Fells

About the Vicodin Drug

Vicodin is a very common opiate drug recommended by doctors to reduce ache. It is a combination of hydrocodone and acetaminophen that blocks certain receptors in the brain which are responsible for pain and will also result in the user to experience a euphoric sensation when the drug is used. Despite the fact that this drug is pretty effectual, it's as well extremely addictive, especially when this drug is utilized for a long time.

Although it's not as popular as other opiate drugs, Vicodin is now starting to be probably the most abused opiate drugs in the United States. To make things even worse, this drug is commonly abused by the younger individuals and has caused them many problems already.

Everyone needs to be familiar with vicodin addiction especially when someone you know is presently using this medication so you can be aware once they develop a dependency to Vicodin for you to be able to do something immediately.

The Consequences of Abusing Vicodin

- Disrupted mental status Since it mostly affects the central nervous system (CNS), Vicodin abuse will surely disrupt your mental performance causing confusion, wooziness, regular mood changes, head aches, dysphoria or severe depressive disorders, stress and anxiety, lightheadedness, fear, and lethargy.

- Seizures Too much intake of Vicodin may trigger seizures because of the excessive neuron activity occurring in the brain. Convulsions are one of the most harmful aftereffects of Vicodin abuse.

- Slowed heart rate One of the results of Vicodin is the slowing and weakening of the heart and too much Vicodin will affect its normal pumping activity that can result in the person to faint.

- Yellowing of the skin This condition is commonly known as jaundice. This is caused by the abnormal functioning of the liver. This signifies that the bilirubin contained in the blood is really high and that the liver is not functioning appropriately.

- Liver damage Since Vicodin contains acetaminophen, it could potentially damage your liver. Acetaminophen is one of the most typical causes of liver damage and failure.

The abuse of vicodin could easily harm your body particularly if the abuse is extended. Make sure that you get the proper treatment for the abuse of vicodin for you to avoid additional issues.

The Frequent Signs of Vicodin Abuse

There are common indications that you may identify immediately once an individual you know is abusing Vicodin. Ensure that you ask help straight away from drug abuse centers the moment you confirm that they are abusing pain medications so that they can get treatment straight away. The following are some of these indications:

- Vomiting and drowsiness

- Extreme dizziness

- Upset tummy

- Regular mood changes

- Shopping for different physicians to obtain more of the drug

- Sweating in excess and shaking

Never wait for things to get worse. Seek help for opiates abuse straight away.

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Great Self Help Pointer That Are Easy To Follow

By Juan Yohansen

Everyone has those issues in life that can be embarrassing to speak about, even to those who are experts in the industry. However, fear not, because self-help can be an effective way to handle your individual issues as well. Below you will discover some excellent resources for self-help.

Mind-calming exercise and the proteus light and sound machine

Spend ten minutes each day on self-reflection. This could consist of journal writing, reviewing spiritual material, mind-calming exercise or whatever helps you examine your day and mirror on how your actions throughout the day mirror who you are and who you are becoming. Daily representation helps you stay on your path.

To help you on this course, consider discovering some meditation strategies. Meditation could help you center your sense of self and bring you closer to the emotional baseline you would such as to see yourself at.


Take time out to loosen up. Overworking yourself is not only bad for your health, however it can make simple tasks that much harder. Your mind could only deal with one specific thing for a lot time. You need a leisure duration to clear out your head and to come back to your work refreshed and prepared to go.

Summon the self-discipline to take a while off and simply enjoy life more frequently. Pausing from time to time is fine. Life is a present to be taken pleasure in - it's not everything about work and product things. If you lead a hectic life, it is necessary to understand when to reduce. A little time for rest and relaxation gives your mind and body time to recharge.


A large majority of the tension that we feel in our bodies is added adrenaline pumping through our bodies. A great method to eliminate that additional flow of adrenaline is by getting exercise. If you feel as if you more than worried, take a nice peaceful walk and when you return home you will feel much better.

Improving wealth could be one action in individual development. This will enhance the quality of life that you are living. Everybody would adore to be happy and have less tension, and while cash could not address your issues, it can alleviate any monetary strain that you might be experiencing.

After reading this short article, you should be well equipped to tackle your troubles and become worry free and less stressed. Everybody responds to and offers with issues in a different way, and if you feel self-help is the finest option for you, we hope we have actually been able to help you. Good luck!

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Measures To Turn Your Self Improvement Goals Into Reality

By Delores Crane

Obtaining Began Along with your Self Improvement Goals

Sometimes it is hard to commence a new system of self improvement. Sometimes it can be difficult to understand exactly where to begin. This article delivers quite a few inspirational ideas and guidance for setting and achieving your personal ambitions. You will locate a great deal of diverse ideas here that will help you achieve your targets.

Your objectives for self improvement must be precise adequate to ensure that you are in a position to take pleasure in success. Obtaining a certain end outcome to perform towards gives you far more precise methods to have to the aim, and offers you a much better opportunity at succeeding.

If you're having difficulty coping with anxiety in public, attempt going towards the motion pictures having a pal. You will be out and about but you don't have to speak a good deal and even see who you are with the majority of the time. At some point, it will be second nature to be around a large amount of folks.

To have probably the most from your self improvement efforts, be sure you aim higher and worth what exactly is ideal. You should constantly strive to do your ideal in all aspects of the life. Strive to make every day better than the prior one. Constantly function towards making improvements.

Write up a motivational speech for yourself. Make a self-empowering post-it note or note card. Often preserve it on you, and study it anytime you will need a enhance. Far better however, videotape yourself reading it aloud and view the video regularly. How will this assist?

Stressful Situations Can Challenge Self Improvement

If you are faced with difficult, stressful conditions, understand to use your intellect greater than your feelings. In the event you understand the way to deal with the most stressful circumstances in life, then the smaller sized stuff will really feel manageable, generating your everyday life much better. Take some time for the duration of your day to stop and take breaths.

Find out a couple of texts that give you encouragement and assistance. Some people see it spiritually, whereas other folks just find it inspirational. When you have anything certain that you simply can go study if you have to ground your self, you have a ready-to-use method to usually put oneself at ease.

Much more Self Improvement Road Blocks

Get oneself out on the habit of continual worrying. Worrying is making a predicament inside your head that has not happened, and in most instances, won't come about. As an option to worrying, take into consideration the worst factor that could come about and after that develop a plan to address that scenario need to it take place. By undertaking, this you are going to really feel ready to take care of what ever the circumstance throws at you, so you'll no longer must worry.

By breaking your self improvement process into modest, manageable ambitions, you will locate your self closer for your targets by the finish of every day. You'll have the ability to practice what you are in search of to adopt as habit, and you'll increase your own morale to continue. These self improvement suggestions are only a springboard, it's up to you to build a better life.

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Self-Help Tips And Tricks To Improve Your Life

By Juan Yohansen

Poor individual development can detrimentally affect you, both physically and emotionally. You need to do a great deal of your research so that you do not get depressed if you do not achieve your goals right away. There are some tips detailed below to help you start working on your very own plan for individual development.


Start your day with some light mind-calming exercise, prayer, or silent idea. This helps you begin your day on the right foot and sets the stage to complete a lot. Attempt it and see exactly how different a day is when you approach it from a mindset of peace.

Learning how to meditate could benefit your individual advancement. A great reflection regimen permits you to find out how to clear your mind from excess concern. As you exercise reflection, you will begin to see more clearly those things in your life that are crucial and different them from the unimportant.

Leisure and biofeedback

One method that you could help yourself handle stress is to do modern muscle leisure. One at a time, tighten a muscle, hold it, then release the tension. This helps to relax your body, and studies have revealed that individuals's psychological anxiety decreases as their body tension is minimized.

Take time out to relax. Exhausting yourself is not only bad for your health, but it can make simple jobs that much harder. Your mind could just work on one particular thing for so much time. You need a leisure duration to clean out your head and to come back to your work freshened and prepared to go.


Company is essential to a tension free life. If you feel as though you are in a chaotic and chaotic environment it could make you feel as though your life is littered and disorderly. It does not take long to get rid of a few of the mess and is well worth the effort when it is all stated and done.

Put in the time to pamper yourself. If you discover that you are not able to find any various other way to loosen up, take a day to make yourself feel pampered. Whether this is a day at the spa or simply a long hot soak in a bubble bath, it will definitely help you to launch the anxiety of your stressful life.

Poor individual development can be extremely problematic, but with some work and some determination, you could beat it. It simply takes research, working, and planning what to do so that you can approach it better. Do yourself a favor and try making use of the above pointers to aid with your individual development.

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The Reasons Why You should never Get Addicted to the consumption of Alcoholic Drinks

By Greg Jordan

The seriousness of Alcohol Addiction

Alcohol dependency will take place when the body will already manifest withdrawal symptoms each time you don't get your regular dose of alcohol. This will mean that the body has become familiar with the effects of alcohol that it will already need it to function normally. Many people don't grasp the severity of alcoholism. They view it as a mild problem that should not even be given serious attention. They believe that it can simply be treated by stopping the consumption of alcoholic beverages. They don't realize that the immediate cessation of alcohol intake will actually harm the body and may cause serious illnesses. Specialist should be obtained when you actually want to beat alcohol addiction. Many of them think that it's not as severe and life-threatening as drug addiction but any kind of addiction should be considered serious because it will greatly impact a person's life.

If you know somebody that is struggling with alcoholism, make sure that they get professional help to prevent things from getting worse. Alcoholism can potentially destroy a life and it's necessary that it gets attended to in the most efficient manner as quickly as possible. Achieving recovery will also be tougher once the addiction has taken place for too long already that is why you need to get help as soon as possible.

The various Signs to Look Out For

It's important that everyone is conscious of the signs and symptoms once drugs and alcohol are being mistreated. This is because early detection can be achieved and you can get treatment immediately. When addiction is ignored for some time, this could cause serious illnesses and may potentially ruin a person's life. An addiction should be treated immediately to avoid serious complications. Several signs you can consider are depression, anxiousness, paranoia, problems at school and work, chilling out different people, constant need of money, insomnia, sudden weight gain or loss, altered eating patterns, extreme moodiness, sleeping difficulties, and ignoring personal grooming. Although these signs are common and could mean another thing, it's still important that you pay attention to these signs and find a solution right away. You mustn't ignore them believing that they'll mean something else because you might regret it over time.

Getting Recovery Properly

The best way is always to ask your doctor for recommendations on where you should get your treatment. However, if you want more options, you can always call alcohol abuse hotlines and request more information on rehabilitation centers present in your neighborhood. You can research about them too on the internet and see the services they offer.

You should learn more about alcohol and drugs and the way addiction ought to be properly handled.

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Crop Damages by Wild Animals Global View Country Report and Reviews in 1-10 Sections

Crop Damage by Wild Animals

section i general discussions

G.M. Wani

Ph.D ; D.V.M (Germany)


Director Extension Education / SAMETI

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir

Shalimar, Srinagar, 191121

A brief global review to asses the damage caused to cultivated crops by wild animals around the world. The review was attempted in response to a recommendation of ICAR Regional Committee No.1 held in Oct, 2007 at Solan, H.p. presided over by Honble Director General, ICAR Dr. Mangala Rai inauguration was chaired by Honble Agriculture Minister J&K, Jenab Ab. Aziz Zargar.


Published by: Director State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institute of Kashmir (SAMETI-K) , SKUAST-K , Shalimar , Post Box: 461, G.P.O, Srinagar.

Publication No: SAMETI/Pub/3/1000/January, 2008

P.O.Box: 461, GPO, Srinagar, E.Mail:

Phone: 0194-2461317,0194-2463460,0194-2463459

Cell: 09419095342; Residence:0194-2431508,2435741


Wild animal-human conflicts have started since beginning of human era from Adam and Eve. This conflict of wilderness made man to hide in caves and he was called as Cave man. Slowly, with his advancement it is he who invented Axe and other weapon in stone and iron ages to frighten the wild animals, initially. Later on he hunted them to save himself. This feeling of uncertainty and fear of wild animals and wilderness reduced with the invention of fire. He made sharp weapons of bones and iron. These initial weapons were the beginning of this conflict, Animal human conflict.

Thirty thousand years ago, the human population rose to 6 million. They were still hunters. With the invention of fire, he set fire a vast majority of sanctuaries, which scared wild life and they migrated from his neighborhood. Many forests, hills and difficult terrains were still beyond the reach of man three thousand years before, although human population has increased to 60 million. Man has already started primitive agriculture. He had made his terrains and wild life scared by him left his close habitats and searched for fresh abodes. Man by now had lust for fur, horns, ornaments and other forest resources. He invented many means to frighten whole wild life. He became a Danger not only for wild animals but for his own species, environment and eco-biodiversity.

Three hundred years ago he industrialized crop production and produced enough food, for nearly 600 million people. This continued and from 30 year now he is feeding 6000 million people. Today we have a global food security for 7.5 billion. Human food security gains resulted in reduction of all other wild species, thus, the origin of wild- life- human conflict is the lust of man for more food, more luxury or sometimes fun for hunting or fur. This reduced wild life reserves and now a open conflict came into existence.

Many man-wild life conflicts have been reported from Gir forests of Gujarat, Rajaji National Park in UP and many other states where forest lands became cultivable lands. Elephants, wild boars, monkeys, squirrels, deer , birds like crows, parakeets, wild dogs, jackals, gaur, sambur, langure, fowls, pea cocks, neilgai, Hippos, biats, blackbirds, rodents, wild pigs, feral species, primates, beetles, foxes, pigeons, feral hogs and a variety of other species damage crops. The carnivores even attack human too. These attacks are for search of food or their loss of habitat. Many such accidents came to be known in Jammu and Kashmir. The bear leopod and other wild animals are reducing in number. Their habitats used by human.

The human causalities are due to carnivorous species, but herbivores inflict economic and human losses too. The crop damages by wild life has been the new threat to agricultural productivity throughout the world. This also concerns us in Asia and India. This review is aimed to find out:

1. Extent of damage to crops.

2. Nature of crop damage

3. Ways and means to prevent these losses.

4. A strategic planning to drive a line between wildlife conservation and farm economics especially in India.

Executive Abstracts and Strategic elementaries: [EASE]

1. Importance

Species causing crop damages ranges from elephants wild birds, monkeys, squirrels, deer, parakeet, wild dogs, foxes, deer and many others like Neilgai. On an average this damage to crops by wild animals amounts to U$ 961 per hectare. It is much more than an Indian Farmer earns from a hacter annually. Therefore, by these estimates, the damages are spectacular and economically important.

2. Human Elephant conflicts (HEC):

i) Economic Losses:

Among elephants crop raiding is common. The crops near their home ranges are damaged more. Elephants damaging crops had twice big ranges than those who did not damage the crops. Thus, more proximity of the crops near their ranges are prone to crops damages. Train accidents instigate elephants more to crop or human damages. Indonesia saw more frequent raids of elephants on crops. Human elephant conflict (HEC) is frequent and poses serious challenges in Africa. Both male groups and family group attacks have been observed. HEC losses in West Bengal were worth 3.2 croses of Rupees. This damage occurred in 3368sq kms.radius. The numerical number of elephants was 62 only. Assam observes damages to the woodcutters by elephants Asian wild Elephants raid and damage crops in herds of 10-13 individuals or big herds comprising 50-74 elephants. In Darjeeling district alone over an area of 200 kms. East to west, in last two decades 277 houses were demolished by elephants, killing 66 pe ople in 5 districts. As a result of this conflict 23 elephants lost their lives. In 2001, economic loss of the order of US fifty thousand dollars was estimated to be inflicted by elephants. This scenario necessitates comprehensive measures to be taken to lessen these damage. The review of the measures, around the world suggest following few studies to be undertaken and resultant measures to be applied to lessen these damages.

ii) Mitigation of losses:

Methods developed and used to mitigate crop damages by elephants consisted of frightening of animals by drum beating, firegracks or even air gun fires. Guarding the crops by fences or even using electric fencing or raising poles and wiring may be effective. Chemical based deterrents, and electric fencing have been found to reduce crop damages. High voltage electric fencing using energizers in west have prevented wild animals damaging crop but this preposition may not be applicable in areas where even habitations do not have access to electricity. However, this method may act as a temporary boundary separating wild and domestic habitats. This could prevent intrusions from sly vatic to domestic foci. Guarding fields, digging trenches, modifying cropping patterns have a possibility of reducing man elephant conflicts or Human elephant conflicts. A 30% open space between two habitats may help to avoid HEC. This means a distance to be maintained between cropping fields and elep hant habitates. A proper investigation on these lines is needed. A grid based geographical information system (GIS) with a 25Km2 resolution may help to have cost effective data source to analyze these situations. There is urgent need of identifying spatial predictors of HEC. On the basis of this study one can suggest or plan mitigation strategies, early warnings of attacks, use of barriers and deterrents. The utility of the methods could be assessed for land use and livelihood strategies to limit HEC.

3. Dear-Nilgai Damages.

A survey of 2500 farms in UK revealed that 69% (n=192) cereal crops were damaged by deer. This damage costed 500 per annum per farm. Damages varied with deer density. In USA too deer damages comprised of crop loss, landscape damages, car accidents and property damages. Nilgai damages alongwith deer damages are common in India too. Tree cover of Acacia in the area is generally used as shelter by Nilgai. We have encountered huge crop damage in Mathura (CIRG) and nearby area by Nilgai visits. Grazing and browsing of Nilgai inflict losses on farms. This is regarded as a mammalian crop threat by the farmers. This behaviour of their inflict ozone injury to the young sapling, so precious for the growth of trees in Indian semi-arid farms.

Corn damages by deer in USA amounts to 6.6.% per hectare. In an area where a farmer owned 125 hectare on an average 55 hectares were used to sow corn. There is a 6.6% loss of the product which is a huge economic loss. Similar damages by deer in Ontario, Canada, Portugal, Japan, South America and other parts of the world have been reviewed. In Virginia too a study involving 1506 agricultural producer farmers revealed 58% of them experiencing deer damages. Ways and means to prevent such attacks on crops have been reviewed. Most of the possible measures to be adopted are similar to these described for elephants (HEC).

4. Other Mammal and bird damages

Monkey damages maize, sweet potato and other crops. It is suggested to reduce or change cropping pattern or alternating with non-agricultural activities near location of monkey habitats. Various methods are reviewed. Bat damage, Hygo crop damages in Japan, Grape wine damages by bats in Andra Pradesh, India have been studied. Crop economic loss assessment has been reviewed in these pages. Clover rather than grass can reduce wild mammal damages. Alley cropping of black walnuts helped to save soyabean and maize crop damages. Pesticide damages wildlife and minimize their attacks, enclosures and other electric fencing help to avoid such damage. Can one use harmful means to save crops, need a suitable strategy to preserve ecology and biodiversity. Both crops and wild animals need security and conservation. A management strategy is needed to safeguard human and wildlife equally. A policy framework is envisaged.

Blackbird crop damage in USA amounts to 5-8 million dollars. A considerable sum of crores of rupees have been estimated to be damages in the form of crop, human and property losses by wild animals, birds and other rodents in India. Many measures to reduce these losses are needed and have been reviewed.


1. Wild animals damaging crops

To elephants wild boar, porcupine, rheus macaque (Macaca mulatta), hoary-bellied squirrel, barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), red-breasted parakeet (Psittacula alexandri), and wild dog are wild animals damaging crops.

Methods developed and being used to mitigate man-wildlife conflict include, frightening the animals; guarding the crops; and using some sort of scarecrow and traps (Miah et al 2001).

Accurate estimation of crop damage by wildlife (raccoons, white-tailed deer, and coyotes) often requires labour-intensive sampling procedure. Variable area transect (VAT) sampling has been identified as a potential labour-saving alternative to quadrat sampling ( Engerman et al 2002).

2. Wild life Human conflicts

Agricultural landowners suffer in the form of damage to crops, livestock, and other property. Some wildlife agencies maintained abatement and compensation programmes. A model of deer-inflicted crop damage used to facilitate agency decisions regarding deer densities and distribution, abatement use, and to forecast compensation. The model is applied to field-level compensation claims in Wisconsin, USA. The results are consistent with theory, ( Yoder J, 2002).

3. Crop Economic loss due to wild life

Peoples perceptions were discerned through participatory discussions covering 419 households distributed in 10 villages in the buffer zone. Traditional uncodified rights of local people were substantially reduced through policy interventions set in since 1860s. Local people as well as tourists have been excluded from the core zone covering an area of 625 km2 since 1982. Deterioration of rural economy due to damage to crop and livestock by wildlife and, termination of opportunities of income from wild medicinal plant resources and tourism in the core zone were the key negative impacts of conservation policy felt by more than 90% of respondents. Mean annual economic loss per household was estimated as Rs.1285, Rs. 1195 and Rs.156 due to damage caused by wildlife to food crops, fruit trees and beehives, respectively, Rs. 1587 due to ban on collection of wild medicinal plants for marketing and Rs.7904 due to ban on tourism in the core zone. The Reserve authority granted compe nsation for livestock killed by wildlife but it was hardly 5% of the market value of killed livestock as assessed by the people. People did not appreciate much the present benefits from the reserve management in the form of wages for carrying out afforestation work, partial compensation for livestock depredation and availability of solar power devices, wool, and spinning devices. Approximately 95% respondents identified empowerment of local people in respect of realizing income from timber from dead/diseased trees in community forests, income from medicinal plants in buffer zone and opening of the core zone for tourism as potential development options. Improvement in rural economy, the prime concern of local people, has not received as much attention as legal enforcement of protection by the reserve management. There is a need for developing policies and management actions that serve the economic interests of local people together with enhancement of environment conservation goal (Maikhuri et al 2001).

4. Crop selection:

Damage was less (34%) in experimental carrot as multiple crop than carrots as only crop planted (62% damage). Staggered plantings of canola, which continuously produced flowers, was the most effective lure crop of the green manure crops we tested. Carrot producers should use electric fences or 2.4-m woven wire fences, perhaps combined with staggered canola plantings, to reduce carrot depredations ( Schwab et al 2001).

The colver, rather than fertilized grass, is more effective cover crop on AFAs, against damage by migratory geese. The sward should be managed to encourage clover growth, which would probably involve frequent cutting but no fertilizer. Further research is needed on clover replenishment rate over the winter season and possible benefits of clover leys to other wild life (McKay et al 2001). Alley cropping of black walnuts and percent with maize and soyabean rotations may avoid will animal damages. Tree crop ratio of 1:10 may help( Godsey, 2000).

5. Elephan- human conflicts:

Conflicts between elephants (Elephas maximus) and human occur in Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttar Pradesh, one of eleven reserves designated in India, to conserve Asian elephants. Elephant-human. The conflicts in RNP from 1996 to 1999 were studied, and all human and elephant deaths or injuries caused by conflict were recorded. The impact of human colonies on elephant movement was studied in 18 villages along 17 km of the sourthern boundary of the study site and 4 village in the Chilla-Motichur corridor. Three male and four female elephants were radio tracked for 1-2 years. Primary conflicts included crop raiding, competition between humans and elephants for vegetation, and elephant mortality due to train accidents. Adult males that raided crops had home ranges twice as large as adult males that did not raid crops. Elephants only damaged crop of fields that occurred within their home ranges. Field trails of chemical based deterrents and electric fencing should be tried to reduce crop damage. Train speeds need to be reduced to prevent accidental elephant mortality (Williams et al 2001).

Wild Elephant damages:

A rapid village and field assessments, data survey showed. Elephants raided crops at a rate of 0.53 elephants per day in Indonesia. The frequency of crop raiding was related to vegetation type along the park border, the size and presence of rivers, and the distance to the parks Elephant Training Centre (ETC), which houses about 150 captive elephants. Wild elephants damaged at least 450000 m2 of maize, rice, cassava, beans and other annual crops, and close to 900 coconut, banana and other perennial trees in the area surveyed. Elephants killed or injured 24 .Villagers try to reduce elephant damage by guarding fields, digging trenches between the park and their fields, and modifying their cropping patterns. Elephants-human conflict decreases the probability of support from local people for conservation efforts. The approaches are suggested consist of elephant trenches, electric fences, external support to affected villages, and compensation to villagers for any damage caused (Nyhus et al 2000).

This study explores land use conflict in south east Kajiado District, Kenya. The results of household surveys conducted with farmers and herders in 1977 and 1996 to examine changes in land management strategies are compared. The conflict reflects ongoing competition over access to scarce land and water resources between herding, farming and wildlife are the reason of damage of crops. This man-animal conflict needs understanding the conditions that have created the present conflicts (Compbell et al 2000).

It is, therefore, suggested that 30% open space be used as a basic division for stratifying thickets into low use and high-use categories for deer density estimation. The proportions of each type could be derived from grid-square measurements of aerial photographs (Latham J 2000).

Human elephant conflict

Human-elephant conflict (HEC) in Africa occurs wherever these two species coincide, and poses serious challenges to wild life managers, local communities and elephants alike. Mitigation requires a details understanding of underlying patterns and processes. Although temporal patterns of HEC are relatively predictable, spatial variation has shown few universal trends, making it difficult to predict where conflict will take place. Crop raiding was further subdivided into incidents involving only male elephants or family groups. A relatively fine-resolution, systematic, grid based method was used to assign the locations of conflict incidents, and spatial relations with underlying variables were explored using correlation analysis and logistic regression. Crop raiding was clustered into distinct conflict zones. Both occurrence and intensity could be predicted on the basis of the area under cultivation and, for male elephant groups, proximity to major settlement. Conversely, in cidents human injury and death were less predictable but were correlated with proximity to roads. A grid-based geographical information system (GIS) with a 25km2 resolution utilizing cost-effective data source, combined with simple statistical tools, was capable of identifying spatial predictors of HEC, At finer resolutions spatial autocorrelation compromised the analyses. Synthesis and application. These results suggest that spatial correlates of HEC can be identified, regardless of the sex of the elephants involved. Moreover, the method described here is fully transferable to other sites for comparative analysis of HEC. Using these results to map vulnerability will enable the development and deployment of appropriate conflict mitigation strategies, such as guarding, early warning systems, barriers and deterrents. The utility of such methods and their strategic deployment should be assessed alongside alternative land-use and livelihood strategies that limit cultivation with in the elephant range (Sitati et al 2003).

Human elephant conflicts (HEC) in west Bengal was an economic loss worth 3.2 crores. This much damage occurred in 3368 sq km radius inhibiting 62 elephants (Singh et al 2002)

6. Kerala Survey

Crop damage by wild animals in Kerala, India, was studied from 1993 to 1996. Data were collected from the offices of the Kerala Forest Department, field survey and from the intensive study area at Marayur, Idukki District. Forty-five species of crops were destroyed by wild animals in Kerala, the species commonly destroyed by wild animals were paddy, coconut plam , plantains , cassava , arecanut, coffee, oil plam , pepper , jack tree, mulberry and manago. The main animals involved in crop damage were elephant (Elephas maximus), gaur (Bos gaurus),sambar (Cervus unicolor), wild boar (Sus scrofa), bonnet macaque (Macaca radiate), common langur (Presbytis entellus), blacknaped hare (Lepus nigricollis) and pea fowl (Pavo cristatus). Among these, elephants and wild board gave maximum damage . Of the total compensation claimed by the farmers, only 8.2% was sanctioned by the Kerala Forest Department. The highest crop damage (30%) was recorded from the forest ranges coming under the Northern Circle: pinapple (47%) , sweet potato (47%), tapioca (42%), alocasia (39%) , beans (25%) and plantains (23%) recorded highest percentage of damage. In the intensive study area at Marayur, 28 species of crops were damaged and highest damage was during the summer months. At maximum damage was due to elephant (72%) followed by gaur (62%) , sambar (17%) and wild boar (16%) . Tiger (Panthera tigris), panther (leopard) (Panthera pardus) and wild dog (Conine alpinus) were the main cattle lifters in the state. A total of 31 deaths and 64 injuries caused by wild animals were recorded from the state during the period 1983 to 1993. Thirteen indigenous methods used for controlling the crop damage had been identified. High voltage electric fencing using energizer was effective for stopping elephants and other herbivores from entering the agriculture fields. Crop damage is found to be linked to the cropping pattern and location of the agriculture fields. Short term and long-term measures needed to prevent the crop damage are discussed (Jayson EA,1999).

7. Bird crop damages

Use of non-lethal method to avoid crop damages by bird have been reported. Blueberry damages by cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrotun were minimized. (Avery et al 2002).

8. Wild Bird damage

In the northern Great Plains of USA, conflicts between red-winged black birds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and sunflower (Helianthus annus) growers have intensified since the late 1960s due to the expanded commercial production of sunflowers. We studied the potential population effects of the removal of up to 2 million red-winged blackbirds annually under a 5 year programme of baiting during spring with DRC-1339 (3-choloro-4 methalalanine) treated rice. They also examined whether lethal control, in combination with current levels of breeding habitat management, would be cost effective in decreasing depredation of sunflower crops during late summer. They evaluated the cost benefit ration for 4 culling scenarios involving (1) variable annual cullus, not exceeding 2 million birds, with and without density compensation (i.e. ,a positive density-dependent response) on adult survival and (2) culls of 2 million birds annually with and without density compensation .We constructed a red winged blackbird population model represented as an age-based matrix and calibrated to stable growth. We assumed a total population of 27 million birds on 1 April (week 1), representing the red-winged blackbird breeding population staging in eastern Southern Dakota and migrating into North Dakota.Under each culling scenario, we reduced the stable red-winged blackbird population (Equally for females and males) and project the population through week 23 of the annual cycle (2 Sep). We then evaluated the associated costs of the management relative to potential sunflower crop losses, assuming $0.07 in damage per bird and 4% loss to other factors. Variable annual culls, likely the more biologically realistic model scenarios, yielded mean annual removals of 1 240 560 (SE=12 328) birds with density compensation and 1 231 620 (SE=28 811) birds without density compensation,, with cost benefit ratios of 1:2.3 and 1:3.6, respectively. Annual intrinsic rates for the model population ove r the 5 year period ranged from 1-4 to 4.8%. Considering potential variability in the effectiveness of the cull and the combination of direct and indirect costs,we contend that the realized benefits to sunflower growers by lethal control of red-winged blackbiards via spring baiting , in combination with current nonlethal management efforts, would likely be negligible (Blackwell et al 2003).

The efficacy of hydrolyzed casein (HC) and retail products that contain HC in reducing deer damage to trees and shrubs was determined in a field experiments conducted in USA during 2004-05. The results of the experiments indicate the suitability of HC as a deer repellent. Technical grade HC completely eliminated browsing damage to evergreen shrubs (Gaultheria shallon) and conifers (Thuja plicata). Retail sources of HC were not as effective as the pure hydrolyzed protein (Kimball et al 2005).

9. Blackbird damages

The economic impact of blackbirds can be severe to rice producers in the United States. One approach to managing this damage is the application of bird-deterrent chemical to the crop. Previous pilot trials suggested that caffeine offered potential as a safe, economical bird repellent. In this study, cage feeding trials with female red winged blackbirds and male brown headed cowbirds confirmed that a treatment rate of 25000 ppm caffeine on rice seed reduced consumption as much as 76% . Trials with mixed species blackbirds flocks in a 0.2-ha flight pen resulted in just 4% loss of caffine-treated rice compared to 43% loss of untreated rice. . Field trials of a 10 000 ppm caffeine treatment in Louisiana revealed > 90% of caffeine-treated rice seed remained unconsumed on days 2 and 3 of the study whereas blackbirds consumed > 80% of the untreated seed. As a rice seed treatment to deter blackbirds, caffeine appears to be effective, economical and environmentally safe, although additional aquatic toxicity testing is desirable. Improvements in formulation will be needed to make the compound practical for general agricultural spray applications and to extend the adherence of caffeine to rice seeds in field conditions ((Avery et al 2005).

10. Deer damage

A questionnaire was distributed to over 2500 farms to know damage caused by lowland deer to crops, trees and vegetation. Results from the questionnaire showed that 69% (n=1192) of responding farmers had deer on their holdings and that Roe and Fallow were the most frequently seen species. On those farms with deer present, cereals were the most commonly damaged crop (44%), but only 15% of these farmers claimed that the annual cost of damage to cereals exceeded 500 each year for the whole farm. Validation assessments were based on two visits to assess deer damage to the crop, with a deer species/density assessment during the March assessment and an assessment of grain yield and quality during the August assessment. Respondents were generally accurate in the density and species of deer reported. The percentage of the farm suffering damage attributable to deer was very variable, generally being higher at the first assessment than the second. The figures calculated for yield los s were generally low, Farmers were poor at estimating the economic impact of deer damage when compared to validation data, but a number of parameters may have changed in the two years between the questionnaire distribution and validation, including changes in deer density, crop rotations, and the marked drop in grain prices, which may account for some of the inaccuracies. There were no statistically significant relationships between deer damage assessments and yield loss, either for individual species or both species combined. The relationship between Roe deer damage at the harvest assessment and Roe deer density was significant (Post et al, 2001).

Wildlife managers must consider the publics preferences for wildlife population levels when determining management policies. 849 farmers, hunters and the general public of Maryland. USA, were surveyed in 1996 to determine their preferences for increasing, maintaining, or decreasing deer population numbers. Using a random utility theoretic framework, the factors that explain preferences such as residential location, socioeconomic characteristics, landscape damage, agricultural yield loss and vehicle accidents were analyzed. Results suggested that the majority of people benefit from deer and want to keep deer population at current levels. Other characteristics such as age, income, education, and residential location have minor or no impact on preferences. Property damage, crop loss, landscape damage, and car accidents appear to be the biggest concerns ( Curtis et al 2001).

11. Sika deer population in Japan

Sika deer Cervus nippon population in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, increased rapidly during 1990-1998 . This increase appeared to have halted in 1999-2000, probably due to increased hunting and nuisance control. The period of rapid increase was associated with a disproportionately rapid increase in compensation paid for deer damage to crops. We studied changes in diet during 1990-2000, as reflected by stable isotope ratios of C and N in tooth collagen. We hypothesized that isotope ratios would demonstrate dietary shifts related to population levels and/or time, and that shifts in isotope ratios would be consistent with increasing individual consumption of pasture grasses at higher population levels, delta 13C isotope ratios of tooth collagen in 3 year-old sika indicated a diet dominated by C3 plants throughout the period, and that forage species other than pasture grasses and dwarf bamboo Sasa nipponica ( the main crop and woodland understory plants, respectively) were import ant elements. There was a significant decline in the delta 13C isotope ratio during 1990-2000 in both males and females, delta 15N values showed no trend with time for males, but increased over time in females. Indices of population (Sightings per Unit Effort, SPUE) were negatively correlated with female delta 13C, and positively correlated with female delta 15N, values indicating a shift in diet over the period , especially among females. This shift may be related to population and/or offtake levels, in particular the rapid increase in female offtake for nuisance control and hunting during the period. The data are consistent with a relative increase in pasture grass consumption per individual at higher population levels, however, other explanations of the data are equally plausible. Possible dietary changes, and other factors, influencing the observed shift in isotope ratios are discussed. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of dietary shifts nevertheless appe ared small, and did not provide evidence which would justify modifying the current policy, of limiting crop damage through managed population reduction to about 25% of peak levels( Halley et al 2006).

12. White-tailed deer damages

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may cause more damage than any other species of wildlife. These damages include crop loss, automobile and aviation collisions, disease transmission, environmental degradation, and destruction of ornamental plantings. One practical method of controlling deer damage is the use of exclusionary fences. The relatively high cost of labor and materials required to build effective fences has limited most applications to the protection of orchards, vegetable farms, other high value resources, and mitigation of human health and safety risks. Improvements in fence technology resulting in less expensive, yet effective fence have expanded the use of fence to manage damage caused by deer. Fence typically installed to manage white-tailed deer damage include wire or plastic mesh, electrified high-tensile steel wire, and electrified polytape or polyrope fence. They reviewed the scientific literature on fencing to determine which fence designs wou ld be the most effective for excluding deer in a variety of situations (VerCauteren et al 2006).

The installation of fences to protect agricultural products, natural resources, or other areas from deer (Odocoileus spp.) can be expensive and potential benefits of fencing are difficult to quantify. A rational method is needed to help evaluate whether fencing can be cost effective and which fence designs will be optimal for particular applications. They describe an interactive, dynamic simulation model that conducts economic analyses and predicts economic benefit associated with fences for crops relative to area and perimeter of protected plot, value of crop, percentage of crop damaged by deer annually prior to fencing, efficacy of fence, and costs of fence materials and labor. Users of the model can easily adjust these variables to fit their individual situations and needs. By running a series of simulations, model users can answer questions related directly to fence efficacy and cost-effectiveness (VerCauteren K et al 2006).

13. Corn damage by wild life

Corn damages in USA were estimated at 6.6 per hac due to wild life. The white tailed deer was the wild animal responsible for loss. The average hacters owned by farmers were 125 out of which 55 hectares were sown corn. (Tzilkowsi et al 2002).

14. Deer Damage

Deer (Odocoileus spp.) can cause substantial damage to agricultural crops, resulting in economic losses for producers. They developed a deer activated bio-acoustic frightening device to reduce white-tailed deer (O, virginianus) damage in agricultural fields. The device considered of an infrared detection system that activated an audio component which broadcast recorded distress and alarm calls of deer. They tested the device against unprotected controls in cornfields during the silking-tasseling stage of growth in July 2001. The device was not effective in reducing damage: track-count indices (F1,4=0.02), corn yield (F1,9=1.27,P=0.289), and estimated damage levels (F1,10=0.87, P=0.374) did not differ between experimental and control fields. The size (F2,26=1,00,P=0.380), location (F2,25=0.39,P=0.684), and percent overlap (F2,25=0.20,P=0.818) of use-areas of radiomarked female deer did not differ between during and after treatment periods. They concluded that the deer-acti vated bio-acoustic device was not effective in protecting cornfields in this study; however, the device may be more effective in small areas such as gardens or for high value crops that do not grow tall enough to offer protective cover (Gilsdorf et al 2004).

White tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) cause millions of dollars of damage to agricultural crops annually . They tested the effectiveness of propane exploders and Electronic Guards (Pocatello Supply Depot, Pocatello, Id). For reducing deer damage in corn fields during the silking-tasseling stage of growth. Track-count indices (F2,7=0.70,P=0.532), corn yield (F2,6=0.14, P=0.873), and estimated damage levels (F2, 12=1,45 P=0.272) did not differ between experimental and control fields. The size (F2,11=0.08,P =0.924), Location (F2,9=0.30, P=0.750), and percent overlap (F2,9=0.46, P=0.644) of use areas of radiomarked female deer in the vicinity of experimental fields did not differ among before, during and after 18 day treatment periods. In a related study, we placed propane exploders in cornfields within use-areas of 12 radiomarked female deer. The deer did not react appreciably to the devices; the size (F2, 17=0.08, P=0.921), location (F2,22=1.37, P=0.275), and percent o verlap (f2,10=0.47, P=0.636) of deer use areas did not differ among before, during, and after 14 day treatment periods. They conclude that propane exploders and Electronic Guards have limited potential for reducing deer damage to corn at the silking-tasseling stage (Glisdorf et al 2004l.

A welfare measure for wildlife damage to Ontario (Canada) field crop producers during the 1998 was. The welfare measure presented in this study provides a more accurate picture of losses from wildlife damage to agricultural. Other damage estimates based on yield loss overstate the damage since benefits from wildlife are netted out. Results for the Ontario field crop producers indicate that the magnitude of the difference between the value of the yield loss and the welfare measure of damage is approximately 50%. This difference indicates that most farmers were willing to tolerate the wildlife damage they experienced (Heigh et al 2001).

15. Grapevine damages

In field trials in 1999-2000 in Gundla Pochampally, Andhra Pradesh, India , the incidence of damage to green grapevines was studied. Visits to the vines by bats begain around 45 minutes after sunset and foraging continued until 1 hour before sunrise. Damage occurred to ripe fruit only, and increased around harvesting time, percentage damage ranged from 0 to 100% (Bhargavi et al, 2001).

16. Hippo damage

The introduction to the paper described the various ecological effects known to result from grazing, movement along paths, and wallowing by the common hippo. Hippopotamus amphibious. The study reported was carried out at Kainji Lake National Park., Nigeria, during the dry season periods {of 1991 and 1992} . The method adopted by Agnew, A.D.Q. (East African Wildlife Journal (1966) 4, 38-46) was used to assess hippo foraging footprints at three hippo pool sites. A total of 32 footpaths were enumerated out of which 18 were located at Kaii hippo pool site, while the frequency of utilization of paths was also higher for this site relative to those in other area. The upstream-downstream trend in hippo occupancy of dry season water pools could expose the hippo to crop damage conflicts at the peripheral areas.

17. Hygo-Japan-mammal crop damages

Mammals inhabiting Hyogo consist of seven orders, 17 families and about 40 species. Except for Lagomorpha and Artiodactyla, the remaining five orders among them include species which need some protection and they total about 55% of all species excluding extinct, introduced and feral species. Ecological information in Hyogo prefecture has been accumulated in few protection-required species there is no recent information of spatial distribution on Oriental water-shrew, Japanese noctule-bat and Japanese dormouse; and little information on Japanese shrew, Japanese horse-shoe bat, Japanese large footed bat. Schreibers bent-winged bat, Japanese tube-nosed bat, common parti-colored bat, Japanese squirrel, Japanese small flying-squirrel, Japanese giant flying-squirrel, smiths vole harvest mouse and Japanese badger. Damage and population managements is also necessary in sika deer and Japanese wild boar, to reduce their crop--damaging, and comprehensive management in Japanese black bear, an endangered local population, to prevent human-bear fatal accident. Habitat alteration due to human activities, however, has affected the population sizes and spatial distribution of all these, mammals in Hyogo. Habitat management has priority over damage. Fundamental and applied scientific studies and understanding of ecology and wildlife management science needs promotion by citizens (Mitani M 2000).

18. Monkey damage

Forty-seven property owners in Entebbe, Uganda were questioned about vervet monkey activities on their property. The objective was to investigate the interactions between humans and vervet monkeys in an agricultural area adjacent to a forest zone. Other studies have reported that farms located within 300 m of a forested boundary probably incur the greatest risk of crop-raiding. Two other factors that may influence susceptibility to vervet crop-raiding were also examined: the types of crops grown and the types of direct preventive measures used. The effect of these two factors on vervet crop-raiding is not straight forward. However, the distance a property is located from the forest edge is an important factor influencing vervet crop raiding. Surveyed gardens 200 m from the forest edge received significantly less crop raiding than farms located 100 or 50m (P=0.040,< alpha=0.05). In this study, 8 out of 13 farmers (61.5%) said that maize, sweet potato, or both, were most li kely to be damaged by the vervets. Other crops singled out by the farmers are receiving damage by the vervets were bananas, mangoes, groundnuts and yam. They suggest that the development of non-agricultural activities on land directly adjacent to forested areas may reduce vervet crop raiding by deterring vervets from traveling greater distances from the forest edge due to increased obstacles or risks (Saj et al 2001).

19. Bait damage

The longevity of zinc phosphide (ZP) on whole wheat bait was determined at the end of the dry and wet seasons, is Western Australia.. While the total rainfall during the two trials was 74 mm and 155mm, substantial loss of ZP was recorded only after significant rainfall events. Irrespective of season, the loss of ZP from bait applied in bait stations was minimal. The maximum recorded loss was 17% and this occurred after 21 days exposure during the wet season where the bait stations were placed in-crop. Nevertheless, regardless of the application method, sufficient ZP always remained on the wheat bait. Theoretically it was lethal to rats for at least 8-14 days (Twigg et al., 2001).

20.Venezuela experience:

In Venezuela, lethal control of wintering Dickcissels (Spiza Americana) is considered a threat to the species survival. To help farmers protect their rice and sorghum crops from by Dickcissels and to minimize the killing of large numbers of these birds, alternative non-lethal crop protection measures are needed. To that end, the responses of captive Dickcissels to three bird-repellent chemicals (anthraquinone,methyl anthranilate and methiocarb) applied to rice seed were evaluated. In one-cup feeding trials, treatments of methiocarb (0.05% g/g, applied as Mesurol 75% wettable powder) and anthraquinone (0.5%, applied as Flight Control) reduced consumption of rice by 70% relative to pretreatment consumption. Other anthraquinone treatments (0.05,0.1%) and methyl authranilate (0.05%) were inrffective. In two cup trials, with untreated millet as the alternative food, consumption of rice treated with 0.05 and 0.1% anthraquinone was reduced by 90% relative to pretreatment levels. Overall, Dickcissels responded to the repellents similarly to the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Because Flight Control has been used successfully to reduce blackbird use of rice fields in the USA, the prospect is good for successful reduction of damage to repening rice by Dickcissels in Venezuela, particularly if repellent use is coupled with the establishment of alternative feeding sites ( Avery et al 2001). Deer selected carrots over all green manure crops.

21. Nilgai damages in India

Crop-damage by nilgai has been widely reported from India. Are give Nilgai is for increasing in this region. Lack of natural predators, deforestation overgrazing and the protection of these animals from Hindu communities are reasons for their overpopulation. Tree cover of Acacia are generally used by nilgai as a day time shelter but not food, therefore it goes for crop-raiding in the late evening and at night, jumping across 6-7 feet high stone wall, barbed fencing and fences of dead or live thorny plant material and any other fencing/barrier made to protect the crop-. Due to habit of both grazing as well as browsing they devore every kind of farm species (both rabi and kharif crops). It has been observed that eating less but destroying more by trampling and causing damage are therefore regarded as serious mammalian crop pest and farmers wants to get ride of this unconventional pest. The farmers chase them away by just following them by making loud sound by crackers or ai r gun fires, following through tractors, empty tin or dried pumpkin filled with small stones and connected with strings. Technically, carrots(enclosures), trenching or power fencing are suggested to mitigate the crop damage. Secondly, animals could be translocated to wildlife sanctuaries from the sites they seen overcrowded or severe crop raiding problems (Goyal et al 2000).

22. Pesticides and wildlife

A range of monitoring activities has shown impacts of anticholinesterase pesticides on UK wildlife, and continued risks are evident from laboratory and field experiments, together with the scale of use in the field. Along with other broad spectrum insecticides, many organophosphates have adverse direct effects on non-target arthropods in farmland, and so are likely to contribute towards indirect effects of pesticides on farmland biodiversity. The anticholinesterase insecticides have both lethal and sublethal effects on aquatic wildlife, however the history of recent incidents of damage to river ecology following the wider use of synthetic pyrethroid sheep dips, illustrates the need to consider the implications of changes in the use of alternative products when reviewing these insecticides ( Burn 2000).

The use of anthraguinone-based flight control and methyl anthranilate-based non toxic avian foraging repellent we used to avoid crop damage by sandhill cranes. Thought both repellents were effective at deterring cranes from treated corn, neither has been tested on corn under field conditions. (Blackwell et al 2001).

Oak seedlings were scientifically raised. Seedling mortality and wild life browse damages were minimal when certain herbicide mixture was used. Biologically and aesthetically, the procedure was extremely successful (Ezell et al 1999).

Pre-commercially thinned (forests are less prone to moose damage (McLaren et al, 2000).

23. Pesticide use in conflicts

Pesticides can cause damage to man and beneficial organism. Some sub-lethal effects of pesticides were studied in birds with a view to identifying characteristic biochemical responses that may be useful for the monitoring of exposure to sub-lethal levels in the field. Pesticides were used; demeton-S-methyl, (DSM),chlorpyriphos, chlorfenviphos, triazophos, pirimicarb, methiocarb and permethrin. Blood was collected before dosing, and 2,6,24,48 and 72 hours after the treatment from the brachial vein of birds. Enzyme, activities were assayed in the plasma or serum samples obtained. The assays used were GOT,MHD, GDH, SDH,GAMMA GT and ChE. The results showed an increase in plasma and serum GOT and gamma-GT levels were found in all animals treated with the previous pesticides. The level of ChE increased in birds after treatment with permethrin. It was concluded that the pesticides cause structural and functional changes in the liver and also, the measurement of the previous para meter activities may be useful for assessing exposure and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the wildlife (Dahamna et al 2004).

24. IPM and crop losses

The queensland sugar, industry has recently implemented a comprehensive integrated pest management (IPM) system to minimize crop losses from two antive rodent species, Rattus sordidus (canefield rat) and Melomy burtoni (climbing rat). These species inflicted approximately $25M of damage in a major outbreak in the 1999-2000 seasons. Both of these rodents are listed as common wildlife under the schedules of the queensland nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 1994. The IPM programme is based on understanding the ecology and biology of each species. It incorporates a large-scale monitoring programme aimed at providing early warning of imminent rodent build up to avert major outbreaks. The industry has also developed a memorandum of understanding with Queensland State Government, which delivers on the industrys pest management needs, while providing an improved system of accountability for the taking of two of Queenslands native wildlife species. The consensus reached bet ween the cooperating parties (The Bureau of sugar Experiment Stations, CANEGROWERS, regionally-based Cane Productivity Services, and the outcomes can be negotiated between rural industry and environmental interests (Hunt et al 2004) .

In Areas around Lake Mburo National Park ,large wild animals wander in close proximity to human settlement . This poses serious conflict in terms of crop damage. The integration of conservation with other land uses is difficult where densely settled agricultural land surrounds a protected area potentially containing problem animals, as is the case for several parks in Africa and Asia. The intensity of crop raiding was quantified through the use of random crop quadrants/plots and area estimation techniques in a portion of raided fields. The animal species concerned were documented from observations, footprints and any other marks left behind. Three variables were tested as predictors of damage; human population density, distance from the park boundary and season. In this study data is presented regarding crop loss in the different seasons of the year, analysis of crop damage variation and animal species involved in crop loss. A diverse assemblage of animals foraged on subs istence crops and analysis of crop damage revealed significant crop depreciation by wildlife( Kagoro et al 2004).

25. Hawai Pest

The apple snail, P.canaliculata, is an aquatic freshwater snail native to South America, Originally imported to Hawaii as pets for the aquarium trade, they were soon introduced into wetland plots known as los where taro (Colocasia esculenta), an economically and culturally significant crop, is grown. Some individuals reasoned that the snails, being edible, could be harvested as food, and that raising the snails along with the taro in the Ios would provide income supplemental to the taro harvest with minimum additional input. This introduction of snails into the taro loi however, proved to be a disaster. Farmers failed to take into account the voracity , reproductive potential, and rapid growth of the snails. Because of the ideal conditions in the taro loi, the snails multiplied rapidly and fed heavily on the taro shoots and corns in many cases, destroying a complete crop before harvest time. Hindisight has shown that the snails are dissipated via the irrigation system thr oughout the loi and then spread to the surrounding wetland areas. Large breeding populations are now established in wetland areas on the islands of Hawaie, Oahu, KauaI, and Maui. Some of these wetlands are wildlife preserves with state and federal mandates that restrict the potential methods of eradication. Background information is provided on both P.canaliculata and taro to fully explain the challenges and opportunities that this situation presents (Tamaru et al 2006).

26. Chemical repellents

Chemical feeding repellents applied to ripening sunflower might help reduce blackbird (lcteridae) damage, which is a chronic agricultural problems from seed information harvest. However, cost are high to develop and register new repellents for agricultural use. In 2003 and 2004, we evaluated feeding repellency of 8 pesticides registered by the Environmental Protection Agency for use in sunflower. Caged red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were fed unshelled sunflower seeds treated with the following pesticides: 5 pyrethroid insecticides, an organochlorine, an organophosphorus, and a gungicide. Compared to untreated refernce groups, feeding rates were reduced for 4 of the 5 pyrethroid insecticides. Only the organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos), however, significantly decreased feeding rates. More research on repellency effects of this product in field efficacy trials is probably warranted based on the results of our cage experiments. Depending on timing of application, r egistered insecticides with blackbird feeding repellency could provide supplemental economic benefits to sunflower producers through dual purpose use ((Linz et al 2006).

27. Persistent organic pollutants (POPS)

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have spread throughout the global environment to threaten human health and damage ecosystems, with evidence of POPs contamination in wildlife, human blood, and breast milk documented worldwide. Based on data from the US Food and Drug Administration, this article provides a brief overview of POPs residues in common foods in the USA food supply. The analysis focuses on 12 chemical compounds now targeted for an international phase out under the Stockholm convention on POPs. The available information indicates that POPs residues are present in virtually all categories of foods, including baked goods, fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, and dairy products. Residues of five or more persistent toxic chemicals in a single food item are not unusual, with the most commonly found POPs being the pesticides DDT ( and its metabolites, such as DDE) and dieldrin. Estimated daily doses of dieldrin alone exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency and U S Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Control reference dose for children. Given the widespread occurrence of POPs in the food supply and the serious health risks associated with even extremely small levels of exposure, prevention of further food contamination must be a national health policy priority in every country. Implementation of the Stockholm Convention will prevent further accumulation of persistent toxic chemicals in food. Early ratification and rapid implementation of this treaty should be an urgent priority for all governments (Schafer et al 2002).

28. Netherland experiences

Traditionally, pink-footed geese Anser Brachyrhynchus wintering in Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium have used the Danish sites only during mild winter, rapidly moving southwards in case of cold spells. Since the 1980s, an increasing number of geese have remained on the Danish wintering grounds despite cold spells, foraging on pastures Because winter wheat represented a reliable and profitable food source even in sever winter, the recent change in Agricultural practice has enhanced the development of a new wintering strategy of pink-footed geese, allowing a northward expansion of their winter range. Potentially, this will increase the crop damage conflict and may lead to further population growth ( Therkidsen et al 2000).

Enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 , determine the efficacy of Flight Control TM (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol R (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight control TM (FC) and Mesurol R were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27 kg ha-1, respectively. Horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings treated with anthraquinone was greater (p=0.015) than for methiocarb R, 60 versus 20% , respectively, and seedlings in control plots were 100% destroyed. While this level of damage is probably unacceptable to lettuce growers, it should be remembered that the enclosure situation caused an artificially high bird pressure on the crop. Further studies in open fields under a more normal bird pressure are warranted ( York et al 2000).

29. Ozone injury

Incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) and crown-bread (Verbesina Occidentalis Walt). Were determined .It is thus a matter of consideration that zone injury may harm vegetation harmed by browsing or even cutting. Ozone injury was greatest on the lower leaves for both species sampled with over 95% of the injured leaves occurring on the lower 50% of the plant. This is the first report of foliar ozone injury on these plant species in situ, in the Park, illustrating the great variability in symptom expression with time, and within and between populations ( Chappelka et al 2003).

30. Protected arrears and humans

Knowledge of conflicts between people and protected areas is required for the design of sustainable conservation strategies for the management of most protected areas. The study identifies the causes of conflicts between local people and the Benous Wildlife Conservation Area (BWCA), which includes the Benous National Park, In northern Cameroon. Informal interviews and questionnaires were administered to 114 households in three communities, and to 17 park staff and 7 professional hunting guides from July October 1997. Crop damage affected 86% of the surveyed household, with 31% of crop income lost on average, and with the damage varying significantly between communities. Elephants, baboons, patas monkeys. Warthogs and green parrots accounted for 97% of crop damage, with the staple food maize and millet being most affected. Of the respondents 27% experienced livestock depredation, with 18% of livestock income lost on average. The civet cat was the main predator. The involve ment of local people in illegal activities, their lack of access to natural resources, and damage by wildlife were identified as principal causes of conflicts. Local people, park staff and professional hunting guides had diverse and differing perceptions about the causes of the conflicts and made various suggestions for reduction of wildlife damage including animal scaring and controlled shooting. We conclude that, under current wildlife policy, conflict between people and BWCA (Bonous Wildlife Conservation area) is difficult to resolve. To reduce conflicts and promote sustainable conservation, we suggest co-management of wildlife involving all stakeholders, establishment of crop damage control teams, and promotion of tangible benefits to local people. There may be a requirement for site specificity in management strategies (Weladji et al 2003).

31. Low technology use to avoid damages

It is suggested that an integrated, community-based, low technological approach will be the most sustainable solution to this conflict ( Osborn et al 2003).

Blackbirds (lcteridae) annually damage US$5-8 million of ripening sunflower in the northern Great Plains. Baiting blackbirds with avicide-treated rice during spring migration might reduce the regional breeding populations. birds can be successfully baited with avicide-treated rice placed in corn stubble (Linz et al 2003).

Plant debris accumulation is viewed as a key factor determining small mammal abundance and potential damage in low-till agricultural ((Stermer et al 2003) areas.

The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya in about Rs.5 38 620 (US$15 389). Besides food grain, horticultural crops i.e apple, also suffered. Major wildlife

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